A honeybee examines a Black-eyed Susan. Photo by Barb Gorges.
Published July 23, 2017, in the Wyoming Tribune Eagle, “‘Bee’ thinking about beekeeping.”
By Barb Gorges
Have you thought about beekeeping?
Perhaps one of these reasons draws you:
–The historical romance of beekeeping—it’s been going on since before recorded history.
–You grow crops that would benefit from pollination by bees.
–You have lots of flowers and enjoy the idea of bees buzzing around.
–You like honey.
–You are thinking about going into business selling honey, beeswax and other hive products.
–Or maybe it just sounds like fun.
Either way, you probably have a lot of questions about the hobby. Forty-two folks came to last month’s two-hour presentation on beekeeping by Catherine Wissner, the Laramie County Extension horticulturist and an experienced beekeeper.
At the presentation, Wissner explained how, as hobbies go, keeping honeybees is affordable, beginning around $500 for two Langstroth hives and other essential equipment, plus $175 for the bees, per hive.
As a form of livestock, honeybees take comparatively little work, perhaps 30 hours the first year, for a two or three-hive bee yard, less later, Wissner said. They can often be left to their own devices a week at a time. But they also need someone who will keep them, that is, keep them alive and well. It’s not enough just to buy a “package” of bees and a queen and throw them in a ready-made hive.
Beekeepers inspect, keep records, control diseases, and provide forage, water, shelter, good sanitation and a stress-free hive.
Here’s what to consider before becoming a beekeeper.
Kent (pictured) and Lara Shook planted 20 acres through the Conservation Reserve Program with a seed mix including flowers to help feed their bees on their place in eastern Laramie County, Wyoming. Bees in town have lots of flowers to pick from. Photo by Barb Gorges.
Wissner said cities, including Cheyenne, are a great place to keep bees because so many people plant flowers that benefit both honey bees and native bees.
The countryside around here is a little tougher—there may not be enough nectar in a 1 to 1.5-mile radius to support your hives, so you will have to grow your own flowering plants. Whenever nectar is in short supply, the beekeeper must feed the bees sugar syrup. Instead of nectar, the bees convert white table sugar (other kinds are not clean enough) into honey.
The hive should be located preferably out of the wind, where it gets morning sun and afternoon shade. It needs an obstacle, like a fence, right in front of the exit, forcing departing bees on a trajectory up and over people. It helps if the hive is out of public view since bees make some people nervous.
The City of Cheyenne classifies bees as a nuisance, Wissner said, unless the hive is registered with the state. The Wyoming Department of Agriculture allows up to five hives to be registered for free (search “apiary” at their website), which takes care of most hobbyists, and it offers free consultation. It wants to keep honeybees healthy—sick bees in one hive can infect others nearby.
The white box is the “super.” Bees are “bearding” on the outside, indicating that on this hot day, it is too hot inside the hive for so many bees. Perhaps it is time to transfer some bees to a new hive, say beekeepers Ken and Lara Shook. Photo by Barb Gorges.
The Langstroth hive is most typical. It is a series of stacked wooden bottomless and topless boxes. The vertical panels within them, the frames, are where the bees build combs and deposit the nectar (in the “supers” boxes), or where the larvae pupate (the “hive body,” bigger boxes). The whole beehive is topped off with a “cover.” A stand is also necessary to get the hive off the ground and keep pests out. A minimum of two hives is recommended.
A smoker, a little pitcher full of burning materials, is used to blow smoke in the hive to lull the bees long enough to make inspections.
A hive tool, like a sharp ice scraper, helps beekeepers separate the parts of the hive after the bees have done their best to seal it all together.
Research on colony collapse is ongoing. One contributor is the varroa mite. Wissner demonstrated how beekeepers determine when to treat for mites. It involves “sugar rolling” the bees.
You need to protect yourself from bee stings, thus you outfit yourself with the helmet, bee veil and thick, elbow-length gloves. I would go for the full white suit too. Bees equate black with predators.
Some varieties of honeybees are friendlier than others. The queen determines the mood of the hive and if the mood goes sour, you can remove the nasty queen and introduce a new one.
The beekeeper’s personality can affect the way the bees react. It would be good to find a mentor to show you how to move calmly around bees.
You will also want to have a sting kit handy. In our family, with a child who had had an allergic reaction to stinging insects, that was an epinephrine injector, or EpiPen. But for most of us, Benadryl is adequate.
Removing the stinger correctly helps too. Trying to grab it by the end often causes more toxin to be pumped into you. Scraping the stinger away with the edge of your library card or credit card will work better.
A package of bees weighs about 3 pounds and includes about 10,000 bees, all workers (females) except for about 50 drones (males) responsible for fertilizing eggs. The queen comes in a separate package, corked with a piece of sugar candy. By the time the workers take several days to eat away at the sugar, they have adapted to her scent and won’t kill her when they finally meet her.
This summer is a good time to visit a beekeeper. And it is a good time to build up your perennial flower garden as well as study beekeeping.
Spring is when new hives are set up and the beekeeping suppliers ship packages and queens.
Next summer the bees get established and make the honey they need to eat over the winter—there won’t be enough for you until the second year.
In the fall, about October or so, the bees retire to the hive. You can add sugar patties to make sure they have enough to eat. They keep each other warm, though additional hive insulation is welcome.
Spring can be tricky, fluctuating from sunny flower blooming to snarling snowstorm. It’s crucial to keep an eye on the hive’s food supply so the bees don’t die of starvation, said Wissner, “Bees are super-athletes—they need to eat every day.”
By the second summer, you could have 60 pounds of honey to harvest.
Half the content of a beekeeping supply catalog features honey extracting equipment, jars of all descriptions (including the little honey bears), molds for beeswax candles and kits for honey wine or mead.
Wissner is willing to answer your local beekeeping questions, 307-633-4480. She recommends these books:
–“The Backyard Beekeeper,” Kim Flottum,
–“Attracting Native Pollinators,” The Xerces Society Guide,
–“Beekeeping for Dummies,” Howland Blackiston,
–“First Lessons in Beekeeping,” Keith S. Delaplane.
Other resources include the American Beekeeping Federation, www.abf.net.
You can find a lot of information at www.dadant.com. Dadant & Sons, Inc., which has been in the beekeeping supply business for over 150 years.
Beekeeping equipment and advice is also available in Fort Collins, Colorado, at Copoco’s Honey, http://copocoshoney.com/.
The next Wyoming Bee College Conference, for all levels of beekeeping interest and experience, will be at Laramie County Community College Mar. 17-18, 2018.
Finally, you can call Lara Shook at the Southeastern Wyoming Beekeepers Association at 307-630-9058.